AMD's Opteron Processor
Opteron is the name for AMD's multi-way enterprise-class processors for
servers and workstations. The AMD Opteron™ processor simplifies your business,
minimizing integration complexity by giving you simultaneous 32- and 64-bit
high performance computing.
The AMD Opteron™ processor enables you to easily transition to 64-bit
technology at your desired pace without sacrificing 32-bit performance.
Rely on AMD Opteron™ multiprocessors to help provide a seamless integration
with 64-bit applications.
You can be assured the AMD Opteron™ processor can make your servers
run smooth today and tomorrow.
Opteron™ Processor for MP Server Systems
Check out Fred Weber's presentation at Microprocessor Forum 2002. (pdf)
AMD's 64-bit Processor Technology
The x86-64 technology is AMD's straightforward approach to 64-bit computing,
which builds upon the x86 instruction set, one of the industry's most
proven and widely supported technologies.
The x86-64 technology is designed to support applications that address
large amounts of physical and virtual memory, such as high performance
servers, database management systems, and CAD tools.
By seamlessly intergrating into the current 32-bit computing and support
environment, the x86-64 technology is designed to enable enterprises to
deploy high performance 64-bit capable systems that build upon the billions
of dollars already invested in 32-bit software.
White Paper on AMD
64bit Technology (pdf)
AMD's HyperTransport Technology
HyperTransport technology is a high-speed, low latency, point-to-point
link designed to increase the communication speed between integrated circuits
in computers, servers, embedded systems, and networking and telecommunications
equipment up to 48 times faster than some existing technologies.
HyperTransport technology helps reduce the number of buses in a system,
which can reduce system bottlenecks and enable today's faster microprocessors
to use system memory more efficiently in high-end multiprocessor systems.
HyperTransport technology is designed to:
Provide significantly more bandwidth than current technologies
Use low-latency responses and low pin counts
Maintain compatibility with legacy PC buses while being extensible to
new SNA (Systems Network Architecture) buses.
Appear transparent to operating systems and offer little impact on peripheral
HyperTransport technology was invented at AMD with contributions form
industry partners and is managed and licensed by the HyperTransport Technology
Consortium, a Texas non-profit corporation. The full specification and
more information about HyperTransport technology can be found at HyperTransport.org.
HyperTransport is a licensed trademark of the HyperTransport Technology
Consortium White Paper Meeting the I/O Bandwidth Challenge: How HyperTransport
Technology Accelerates Performance in Key Applications (pdf)
System Design (pdf)
- HyperTransport Technology
and InfiniBand Architecture: The Complete High Bandwidth I/O Solution
- White Paper (pdf)
Technology I/O Link - White Paper (pdf)
- The HyperTransport
"Lite" Interface for Virtex II FPGAs Application Note (pdf)
Integrated DDR DRAM
As processor microarchitecture capabilities have advanced, one of the greatest
performance limitations has become the system architecture’s ability to
provide sufficient low-latency memory bandwidth to the processor core. The
AMD Opteron™ 64 processor and the AMD Opteron™ processor directly addresses
this bottleneck by integrating a DDR memory controller into the processor,
revolutionizing the way x86-based processors access main memory. By running
at the processor’s core frequency, an integrated memory controller greatly
increases bandwidth directly available to the processor at significantly
reduced latencies. The performance-enhancing effect is even more dramatic
within an AMD Opteron multiprocessing environment, because each additional
processor has its own memory controller thereby scaling over all memory
bandwidth. Features of Integrated DDR DRAM Memory Controller:
Available memory bandwidth scales with the number of processors added
Dual-channel DDR DRAM controller with a 128-bit interface capable of
supporting up to eight (8) registered DDR DIMMs per processor
Available memory bandwidth up to 5.3GB/s (with PC2700 memory) per processor